Terms and concepts used in HyperID technical documentation
AAA framework is an acronym for ‘Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting’, the process used to verify identity, determine access, and set privileges granted to users.
Active Directory (AD) is a directory service developed by Microsoft and is used to manage network resources and provide centralized authentication and authorization services. It stores information about users, computers, and other resources on a network and allows administrators to manage and control access to those resources.
Anti-Money Laundering (AML) refers to a set of laws, regulations, and procedures designed to prevent and detect financial transactions that are associated with illegal activities, such as money laundering, terrorist financing, and other financial crimes.
Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a user or system.
Authorization API is an interface or set of protocols that allows applications or services to request and obtain authorization to access specific resources or perform certain actions. It handles the authorization process, which involves verifying the identity of the user or application making the request and determining whether they have the necessary permissions to perform the requested action.
Authorization is the process of granting or denying access to a resource or service based on the authenticated user's privileges or permissions.
Blockchain is a distributed database or ledger that is shared among computer network units connected in a peer-to-peer manner.
Bridge is a gateway that enables the seamless transfer of information and crypto assets from one blockchain to another. Typically, bridges function between two blockchains. However, they can also work between a blockchain and a sidechain (a blockchain that operates on a different set of rules).
CA-certificates are digital certificates issued by trusted organizations known as Certificate Authorities. These certificates are used to verify the identity of a website or server and to establish a secure connection for transmitting sensitive information over the internet.
Certificate Authority is a trusted entity – a company or an organization – that issues digital CA-certificates after verifying the identity of the requester. The CA signs these certificates so that others can verify their authenticity.
Cross-chain interoperability is the ability of different blockchain networks to communicate and exchange data with each other. It enables the seamless transfer of assets or data between different blockchain networks, even if they use different protocols, consensus mechanisms, or programming languages.
Cross-service communication is the exchange of information and data between different services or microservices that belong to separate software systems or organizations. It provides services with the means to communicate and share information with other services that may be running on different platforms or in different environments.
Decentralization is the concept of distributing control over a system, network or commercial ecosphere away from any central point.
Dynamic meshed network is a spatiotemporal communication network comprising DyDAG routing of datagrams over a perpetually changing mesh of HyperNodes made in accordance with the Secure Dynamic Network & Protocol.
Encrypted Virtual Channel (EVC) is a type of logical communication channel established using a cryptographic algorithm that enables secure data transmission between two endpoints in a network and prevents any potential eavesdropping, interception, or tampering of the data being transmitted.
Identity Provider (IDP) is a trusted system or service that is responsible for authenticating users and providing identity information to other systems or services.
Key Shadow (Key Share) is a fragment or part of an encryption key that is distributed among multiple entities or individuals. Individually, key shadows do not contain information to reconstruct the original encryption key. They are used in distributed key management schemes (e.g. based on Multi-party computation).
Know Your Business (KYB) is a process of verifying the identity of a business entity and assessing its potential risk as a customer or client. KYB is a critical component of compliance and risk management for businesses operating in regulated industries such as finance, banking, and insurance. The process typically involves collecting and verifying information about a business entity's legal and regulatory status, ownership structure, financial performance, and reputation.
Know Your Customer (KYC) is a process used by companies and financial institutions to verify the identity of their customers and ensure that they are not involved in illegal activities.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a protocol used for accessing and managing distributed directory information services. Commonly used as a central repository of information about users, computers, and other resources in a networked environment.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a security process that requires users to provide two or more forms of authentication before gaining access to a system.
Multi-party computation (MPC) or Secure MPC (SMPC) is a set of cryptographic practices and techniques that enables multiple parties to jointly compute a result using their individual private data, while preventing the disclosure of their private data to each other.
MultiPass NFT is a unique and personalized digital pass based on NFT technology. It's an on-chain representation of a user's KYC status that acts as an identity verification badge.
Network channel encryption is a security mechanism that protects data in transit across a network by encoding it in a way that makes it unreadable to unauthorized parties.
Non-Fungible Token (NFT) is a unique digital asset that cannot be replicated. It represents ownership of a particular item or piece of content, in the case of Multipass NFT, a user's verification status via HyperID.
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a comprehensive system which is a system of digital certificates, public and private keys, and other cryptographic protocols used to secure communications over a network.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is a software architectural style for building web services that uses HTTP protocol as a standard way to structure and interact with resources over the web.
Secure Dynamic Network & Protocol (SDNP) is a patented real time dispatcher-based multilevel communication protocol and cybersecure alternative to the Internet’s insecure TCP/IP protocol suite.
Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an XML-based standard used for exchanging authentication and authorization data between parties, especially between identity providers and service providers (SPs).
Service Provider (SP) is a system or service that provides a service to users, typically over a network. SP relies on an Identity Provider (IDP) to authenticate users and provide identity information.
Single Sign-on (SSO) is an authentication mechanism that allows users to access multiple applications or services without having to re-enter their credentials each time.
Tokenization is a data security technique that involves replacing sensitive data with a non-sensitive equivalent called a token. Token serves as a reference to the original data, but it does not contain the actual data itself. Tokenization is commonly used to protect sensitive information, such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other personally identifiable information (PII).
Web 2.0 is the second generation of the World Wide Web, focused on user-generated content and social media. It introduced more user-centric and decentralized models of authorization. While traditional username/password credentials are still used, identity verification is handled by centralized Identity Providers, who also offer access control mechanisms for user data. This gives users single credentials for multiple third-party services and control over their own data by granting or revoking access to these services.
Web3 is the next generation of the internet, built on blockchain technology and decentralized protocols. It offers trustless interactions between parties, eliminating the need for centralized intermediaries in authentication and authorization processes. Web3 also enables the use of decentralized identity systems, giving users complete ownership and control over their personal data and digital identities. However, the use of Web3 authentication can be challenging for users, as traditional username/password credentials are no longer used.
Web3 Wallet is a program or device that allows users to manage digital assets and interact with blockchain and decentralized applications (dApps). It typically securely keeps the private key used for signing transactions. Web3 wallets can be either custodial or non-custodial.
Web3 Custodial Wallet are managed by third-party services, which store users' private keys for them. This requires trust in the service to keep the private key secure and not misuse it, but provides greater convenience as the service is responsible for maintaining the security of the key and preventing any unauthorized access or loss of the key.
Web3 Non-custodial Wallet gives users full control over their private keys. This means that users have full ownership and control over their digital assets, but also require more technical knowledge and responsibility. Users must take extra care to keep their private keys secure and backed up, as any loss or unauthorized access can result in the permanent loss of their assets.
Web3 MPC (Multi-Party Computation) Wallet offers users complete control over their private keys, along with the convenience and ease-of-use of a custodial wallet. Private keys are securely stored across multiple entities and managed using cryptographic algorithms, ensuring that no one but the users have full control over their keys. This eliminates the need to rely on a single third-party service or manage keys on their own.
Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) is a cryptographic technique that allows one party (the prover) to prove to another party (the verifier) that they have knowledge of a certain piece of information, without revealing the information itself.